Cure MSA

Country specific patient information

Ahmed Z, Asi YT, Lees AJ, Revesz T, Holton JL. Identification and quantification of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease. Brain Pathol 2013;23:263-273.

 

Asahina M, Low DA, Mathias CJ, Fujinuma Y, Katagiri A, Yamanaka Y, Shimada J, Poudel A, Kuwabara S. Skin temperature of the hand in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:560-562.

 

Baeza Trinidad R, Serrano Ponz M. [Multiple system atrophy: hot cross bun and Santiaguino sign]. Rev Clin Esp (Barc) 2014;214:e9.

 

Batla A, Stamelou M, Mensikova K, Kaiserova M, Tuckova L, Kanovsky P, Quinn N, Bhatia KP. Markedly asymmetric presentation in multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:901-905.

 

Baudrexel S, Seifried C, Penndorf B, Klein JC, Middendorp M, Steinmetz H, Grunwald F, Hilker R. The value of putaminal diffusion imaging versus 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the differential diagnosis of the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2014;29:380-387.

 

Benarroch EE, Schmeichel AM, Low PA, Parisi JE. Parabrachial nucleus involvement in multiple system atrophy. Auton Neurosci 2013;177:170-174.

 

Bjornsdottir A, Gudmundsson G, Blondal H, Olafsson E. Incidence and prevalence of multiple system atrophy: a nationwide study in Iceland. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013;84:136-140.

 

Bleasel JM, Hsiao JH, Halliday GM, Kim WS. Increased expression of ABCA8 in multiple system atrophy brain is associated with changes in pathogenic proteins. J Parkinsons Dis 2013;3:331-339.

 

Boudes M, Uvin P, Pinto S, Voets T, Fowler CJ, Wenning GK, De Ridder D, Stefanova N. Bladder dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2013;28:347-355.

 

Brisinda D, Sorbo AR, Di Giacopo R, Venuti A, Bentivoglio AR, Fenici R. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system evaluation in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Sci 2014;336:197-202.

 

Brudek T, Winge K, Agander TK, Pakkenberg B. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains. Neurochem Res 2013;38:1252-1259.

 

Bujan B, Hofer MJ, Oertel WH, Pagenstecher A, Burk K. Multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) with concomitant beta-amyloid and tau pathology. Clin Neuropathol 2013;32:286-290.

 

Calandra-Buonaura G, Guaraldi P, Sambati L, Lopane G, Cecere A, Barletta G, Provini F, Contin M, Martinelli P, Cortelli P. Multiple system atrophy with prolonged survival: is late onset of dysautonomia the clue? Neurol Sci 2013;34:1875-1878.

 

Cao B, Guo X, Chen K, Song W, Huang R, Wei QQ, Zhao B, Shang HF. Uric acid is associated with the prevalence but not disease progression of multiple system atrophy in Chinese population. J Neurol 2013;260:2511-2515.

 

Cao B, Guo X, Chen K, Song W, Huang R, Wei QQ, Zhao B, Shang HF. Serum lipid levels are associated with the prevalence but not with the disease progression of multiple system atrophy in a Chinese population. Neurol Res 2014;36:150-156.

 

Ceravolo R, Nicoletti V, Garavaglia B, Reale C, Kiferle L, Bonuccelli U. Expanding the clinical phenotype of DYT5 mutations: is multiple system atrophy a possible one? Neurology 2013;81:301-302.

 

Chen S, Tan HY, Wu ZH, Sun CP, He JX, Li XC, Shao M. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Eur J Radiol 2014;83:564-570.

 

Cilia R, Siri C, Colombo A, Pezzoli G. Multiple compulsive behaviors in multiple system atrophy: the importance of predisposition to addiction. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20:355-357.

 

Cope TE, Grube M, Singh B, Burn DJ, Griffiths TD. The basal ganglia in perceptual timing: timing performance in Multiple System Atrophy and Huntington's disease. Neuropsychologia 2014;52:73-81.

 

Ferguson MC, Garland EM, Hedges L, Womack-Nunley B, Hamid R, Phillips JA, 3rd, Shibao CA, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Robertson D. SHC2 gene copy number in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Clin Auton Res 2014;24:25-30.

 

Fernagut PO, Meissner WG, Biran M, Fantin M, Bassil F, Franconi JM, Tison F. Age-related motor dysfunction and neuropathology in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. Synapse 2014;68:98-106.

 

Fischer MD, Synofzik M, Kernstock C, Dietzsch J, Heidlauf R, Schicks J, Srulijes K, Wiethoff S, Menn O, Berg D, Schols L, Schiefer U. Decreased retinal sensitivity and loss of retinal nerve fibers in multiple system atrophy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:235-241.

 

Fogel BL, Baker C, Curnow A, Perlman SL, Geschwind DH, Coppola G. Mutations in PDYN are not responsible for multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 2013;260:927-928.

 

Fukushima T, Asahina M, Fujinuma Y, Yamanaka Y, Katagiri A, Mori M, Kuwabara S. Role of intestinal peptides and the autonomic nervous system in postprandial hypotension in patients with multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 2013;260:475-483.

 

Guo XY, Cao B, Lei F, Huang L, Chen K, Song W, Zhao B, Tang X, Shang H. Clinical and polysomnographic features of patients with multiple system atrophy in Southwest China. Sleep Breath 2013;17:1301-1307.

 

Han YH, Lee JH, Kang BM, Mun CW, Baik SK, Shin YI, Park KH. Topographical differences of brain iron deposition between progressive supranuclear palsy and parkinsonian variant multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Sci 2013;325:29-35.

 

Hayakawa H, Nagai M, Kawanami A, Nakata Y, Nihira T, Ogino M, Takada M, Saido T, Takano J, Saegusa M, Mikami T, Hamada J, Nishiyama K, Mochizuki H, Mizuno Y. Loss of DARPP-32 and calbindin in multiple system atrophy. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2013;120:1689-1698.

 

Kaasinen V, Gardberg M, Seppanen M, Roytta M, Parkkola R, Bergman J. Brain glucose metabolism in neuropathologically confirmed multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 2013;260:1922-1924.

 

Kaindlstorfer C, Granata R, Wenning GK. Tremor in Multiple System Atrophy - a review. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2013;3.

 

Kaufman E, Hall S, Surova Y, Widner H, Hansson O, Lindqvist D. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated in serum of patients with multiple system atrophy. PLoS One 2013;8:e62354.

 

Kawashima S, Ueki Y, Mima T, Fukuyama H, Ojika K, Matsukawa N. Differences in dopaminergic modulation to motor cortical plasticity between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. PLoS One 2013;8:e62515.

 

Kiely AP, Asi YT, Kara E, Limousin P, Ling H, Lewis P, Proukakis C, Quinn N, Lees AJ, Hardy J, Revesz T, Houlden H, Holton JL. alpha-Synucleinopathy associated with G51D SNCA mutation: a link between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy? Acta Neuropathol 2013;125:753-769.

 

Kim HJ, Jeon BS, Kim YE, Kim JY, Kim YK, Sohn CH, Yun JY, Jeon S, Lee JM, Lee JY. Clinical and imaging characteristics of dementia in multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:617-621.

 

Kim JS, Youn J, Yang JJ, Lee DK, Lee JM, Kim ST, Kim HT, Cho JW. Topographic distribution of cortical thinning in subtypes of multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:970-974.

 

Kon T, Mori F, Tanji K, Miki Y, Wakabayashi K. An autopsy case of preclinical multiple system atrophy (MSA-C). Neuropathology 2013;33:667-672.

 

Kragh CL, Fillon G, Gysbers A, Hansen HD, Neumann M, Richter-Landsberg C, Haass C, Zalc B, Lubetzki C, Gai WP, Halliday GM, Kahle PJ, Jensen PH. FAS-dependent cell death in alpha-synuclein transgenic oligodendrocyte models of multiple system atrophy. PLoS One 2013;8:e55243.

 

Kragh CL, Gysbers AM, Rockenstein E, Murphy K, Halliday GM, Masliah E, Jensen PH. Prodegenerative IkappaBalpha expression in oligodendroglial alpha-synuclein models of multiple system atrophy. Neurobiol Dis 2014;63:171-183.

 

Krismer F, Duerr S, Minnerop M, Klockgether T, Stamelou M, Eggert KM, Oertel WH, Schrag A, Poewe W, Wenning GK. [MSA-QoL: disease-specific questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life in multiple system atrophy: validation of the German translation]. Nervenarzt 2013;84:709-714.

 

Krismer F, Wenning GK, Li Y, Poewe W, Stefanova N. Intact olfaction in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy. PLoS One 2013;8:e64625.

 

Lalich IJ, Ekbom DC, Starkman SJ, Orbelo DM, Morgenthaler TI. Vocal fold motion impairment in multiple system atrophy. Laryngoscope 2014;124:730-735.

 

Lee JE, Song SK, Hong JY, Sunwoo MK, Park HJ, Sohn YH, Lee PH. Changes in the blood-brain barrier status closely correlate with the rate of disease progression in patients with multiple system atrophy: a longitudinal study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:450-452.

 

Lee JH, Han YH, Kang BM, Mun CW, Lee SJ, Baik SK. Quantitative assessment of subcortical atrophy and iron content in progressive supranuclear palsy and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 2013;260:2094-2101.

 

Ling H, Petrovic IN, Lang AE, Lees AJ. Reply to letter: Multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism with slow progression and prolonged survival: a diagnostic catch. Mov Disord 2013;28:408.

 

Lu CF, Soong BW, Wu HM, Teng S, Wang PS, Wu YT. Disrupted cerebellar connectivity reduces whole-brain network efficiency in multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2013;28:362-369.

 

Lu CF, Wang PS, Lao YL, Wu HM, Soong BW, Wu YT. Medullo-ponto-cerebellar white matter degeneration altered brain network organization and cortical morphology in multiple system atrophy. Brain Struct Funct 2014;219:947-958.

 

Matsuura K, Maeda M, Yata K, Ichiba Y, Yamaguchi T, Kanamaru K, Tomimoto H. Neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Eur Neurol 2013;70:70-77.

 

Mazere J, Meissner WG, Sibon I, Lamare F, Tison F, Allard M, Mayo W. [(123)I]-IBVM SPECT imaging of cholinergic systems in multiple system atrophy: A specific alteration of the ponto-thalamic cholinergic pathways (Ch5-Ch6). Neuroimage Clin 2013;3:212-217.

 

Multiple-System Atrophy Research C. Mutations in COQ2 in familial and sporadic multiple-system atrophy. N Engl J Med 2013;369:233-244.

 

Muntean ML, Sixel-Doring F, Trenkwalder C. No Difference in Sleep and RBD between Different Types of Patients with Multiple System Atrophy: A Pilot Video-Polysomnographical Study. Sleep Disord 2013;2013:258390.

 

Nair SR, Tan LK, Mohd Ramli N, Lim SY, Rahmat K, Mohd Nor H. A decision tree for differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease using 3-T MR imaging. Eur Radiol 2013;23:1459-1466.

 

Nicoletti G, Rizzo G, Barbagallo G, Tonon C, Condino F, Manners D, Messina D, Testa C, Arabia G, Gambardella A, Lodi R, Quattrone A. Diffusivity of cerebellar hemispheres enables discrimination of cerebellar or parkinsonian multiple system atrophy from progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson syndrome and Parkinson disease. Radiology 2013;267:843-850.

 

Numao A, Suzuki K, Miyamoto M, Miyamoto T, Hirata K. Clinical correlates of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20:212-216.

 

Ozawa T. The COQ2 mutations in Japanese multiple system atrophy: impact on the pathogenesis and phenotypic variation. Mov Disord 2014;29:184.

 

Ozawa T, Tokunaga J, Arakawa M, Ishikawa A, Takeuchi R, Mezaki N, Miura T, Sakai N, Hokari M, Takeshima A, Utsumi K, Kondo T, Yokoseki A, Nishizawa M. Abnormal ghrelin secretion contributes to gastrointestinal symptoms in multiple system atrophy patients. J Neurol 2013;260:2073-2077.

 

Pedroso JL, Rivero RL, Barsottini OG. "Hot cross bun" sign resembling multiple system atrophy in a patient with Machado-Joseph disease. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2013;71:824.

 

Perrotta A, Bolla M, Serrao M, Paparatti M, Tassorelli C, Pierelli F, Sandrini G. Enhanced temporal pain processing in multiple system atrophy. Neurosci Lett 2013;555:203-208.

 

Pilleri M, Levedianos G, Weis L, Gasparoli E, Facchini S, Biundo R, Formento-Dojot P, Antonini A. Heart rate circadian profile in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20:217-221.

 

Qi XK, Song DD. [Pay attentions to the clinical research and diagnostic strategy in multiple system atrophy]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2013;52:918-919.

 

Qi XK, Zhang HL, Cui LY. [Pay attention to nonmotor symptoms and electrophysiological diagnostic methods for the patients of multiple system atrophy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013;93:1937-1939.

 

Qiu F, Liu JG, Li LP, Song DD, Yao W, Qi XK. [Comparative study on diagnostic significance of urethral sphincter versus external anal sphincter electromyography in patients with multiple system atrophy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013;93:1958-1961.

 

Reginold W, Lang AE, Marras C, Heyn C, Alharbi M, Mikulis DJ. Longitudinal quantitative MRI in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20:222-225.

 

Regragui W, Lachhab L, Razine R, Benjelloun H, Ait Benhaddou EH, Benomar A, Yahyaoui M. Profile of multiple system atrophy in Moroccan patients attending a movement disorders outpatient clinic in Rabat university hospital. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2013;169:121-125.

 

Rocchi L, Conte A, Nardella A, Li Voti P, Di Biasio F, Leodori G, Fabbrini G, Berardelli A. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold may help to differentiate patients with multiple system atrophy from patients with Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 2013;20:714-719.

 

Roncevic D, Palma JA, Martinez J, Goulding N, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Kaufmann H. Cerebellar and parkinsonian phenotypes in multiple system atrophy: similarities, differences and survival. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2014;121:507-512.

 

Sacca F, Marsili A, Quarantelli M, Brescia Morra V, Brunetti A, Carbone R, Pane C, Puorro G, Russo CV, Salvatore E, Tucci T, De Michele G, Filla A. A randomized clinical trial of lithium in multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 2013;260:458-461.

 

Shigemoto Y, Matsuda H, Kamiya K, Maikusa N, Nakata Y, Ito K, Ota M, Matsunaga N, Sato N. In vivo evaluation of gray and white matter volume loss in the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy using SPM8 plus DARTEL for VBM. Neuroimage Clin 2013;2:491-496.

 

Shihman B, Giladi N, Bleiberg M, Rosenberg A, Korczyn AD, Gurevich T. Elevated titers of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in patients with multiple system atrophy: a pilot study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013;115:2348-2350.

 

Siri C, Duerr S, Canesi M, Delazer M, Esselink R, Bloem BR, Gurevich T, Balas M, Giladi N, Santacruz P, Marti F, Tolosa E, Rubino A, Meco G, Poewe W, Pezzoli G, Wenning G, Antonini A. A cross-sectional multicenter study of cognitive and behavioural features in multiple system atrophy patients of the parkinsonian and cerebellar type. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2013;120:613-618.

 

Song DD, Yu YX, Dong QW, Zhang HL, Liu JG, Liu Q, Yu J, Qi XK. [Assessment of cognitive function, emotions and activities of daily living in patients with multiple system atrophy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013;93:1948-1951.

 

Spaccavento S, Del Prete M, Loverre A, Craca A, Nardulli R. Multiple system atrophy with early cognitive deficits: a case report. Neurocase 2013;19:613-622.

 

Srulijes K, Hauser AK, Guella I, Asselta R, Brockmann K, Schulte C, Solda G, Cilia R, Maetzler W, Schols L, Wenning GK, Poewe W, Barone P, Wullner U, Oertel W, Berg D, Goldwurm S, Gasser T. No association of GBA mutations and multiple system atrophy. Eur J Neurol 2013;20:e61-62.

 

Stamelou M, Quinn NP, Bhatia KP. "Atypical" atypical parkinsonism: new genetic conditions presenting with features of progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, or multiple system atrophy-a diagnostic guide. Mov Disord 2013;28:1184-1199.

 

Stetkarova I, Kofler M, Majerova V. Cutaneous silent periods in multiple system atrophy. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2015;159:327-332.

 

Sun QY, Guo JF, Han WW, Zuo X, Wang L, Yao LY, Pan Q, Xia K, Yan XX, Tang BS. Genetic association study of glucocerebrosidase gene L444P mutation in essential tremor and multiple system atrophy in mainland China. J Clin Neurosci 2013;20:217-219.

 

Sun ZF, Xiang XS, Chen Z, Zhang L, Tang BS, Xia K, Jiang H. Increase of the plasma alpha-synuclein levels in patients with multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2014;29:375-379.

 

Suppa A, Marsili L, Di Stasio F, Latorre A, Parvez AK, Colosimo C, Berardelli A. Primary motor cortex long-term plasticity in multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2014;29:97-104.

 

Tanji K, Odagiri S, Maruyama A, Mori F, Kakita A, Takahashi H, Wakabayashi K. Alteration of autophagosomal proteins in the brain of multiple system atrophy. Neurobiol Dis 2013;49:190-198.

 

Ubhi K, Rockenstein E, Kragh C, Inglis C, Spencer B, Michael S, Mante M, Adame A, Galasko D, Masliah E. Widespread microRNA dysregulation in multiple system atrophy - disease-related alteration in miR-96. Eur J Neurosci 2014;39:1026-1041.

 

Ueda M, Nakajima N, Nagayama H, Nishiyama Y, Ishii K, Katayama Y. Therapeutic response to pramipexole in a patient with multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism: positron emission tomography and pharmacokinetic assessments. Intern Med 2013;52:1731-1735.

 

Umemura A, Oeda T, Hayashi R, Tomita S, Kohsaka M, Yamamoto K, Sawada H. Diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for differentiation of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease. PLoS One 2013;8:e61066.

 

Valera E, Ubhi K, Mante M, Rockenstein E, Masliah E. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy. Glia 2014;62:317-337.

 

Visanji NP, Collingwood JF, Finnegan ME, Tandon A, House E, Hazrati LN. Iron deficiency in parkinsonism: region-specific iron dysregulation in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. J Parkinsons Dis 2013;3:523-537.

 

von Lewinski F, Schwan M, Paulus W, Trenkwalder C, Sommer M. Impairment of brainstem implicit learning paradigms differentiates multiple system atrophy (MSA) from idiopathic Parkinson syndrome. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003098.

 

Watts JC, Giles K, Oehler A, Middleton L, Dexter DT, Gentleman SM, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:19555-19560.

 

Wenning GK, Geser F, Krismer F, Seppi K, Duerr S, Boesch S, Kollensperger M, Goebel G, Pfeiffer KP, Barone P, Pellecchia MT, Quinn NP, Koukouni V, Fowler CJ, Schrag A, Mathias CJ, Giladi N, Gurevich T, Dupont E, Ostergaard K, Nilsson CF, Widner H, Oertel W, Eggert KM, Albanese A, del Sorbo F, Tolosa E, Cardozo A, Deuschl G, Hellriegel H, Klockgether T, Dodel R, Sampaio C, Coelho M, Djaldetti R, Melamed E, Gasser T, Kamm C, Meco G, Colosimo C, Rascol O, Meissner WG, Tison F, Poewe W, European Multiple System Atrophy Study G. The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2013;12:264-274.

 

Wenning GK, Krismer F. Multiple system atrophy. Handb Clin Neurol 2013;117:229-241.

 

Wu SH, Yang HX, Jiang GH, Gong DR, Wang LX. Preliminary results of cord blood mononuclear cell therapy for multiple system atrophy: a report of three cases. Med Princ Pract 2014;23:282-285.

 

Xi H, Chen L, Huang H, Zhang F, Liu Y, Chen D, Xiao J. Preliminary report of multiple cell therapy for patients with multiple system atrophy. Cell Transplant 2013;22 Suppl 1:S93-99.

 

Xu WH, Wang H, Hu YH, Wang B, Chen J, Gao S. Supine-to-standing transcranial Doppler test in patients with multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:539-542.

 

Yabe I, Sasaki H. [Chromosomal structural variation -- an approach for multiple system atrophy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2013;53:1333-1335.

 

Yamamoto T, Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Yamaguchi C, Ohno S, Nomura F, Yanagisawa M, Hattori T, Kuwabara S. Time-dependent changes and gender differences in urinary dysfunction in patients with multiple system atrophy. Neurourol Urodyn 2014;33:516-523.

 

Zhang LW, Gu WH, Wang GX, Chen YY, Hao Y, Zhang J, Wang K, Jin M. [Analysis of fragile X mental retardation 1 gene premutation in multiple system atrophy patients]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013;93:3744-3747.

 

Zhao T, Severijnen LA, van der Weiden M, Zheng PP, Oostra BA, Hukema RK, Willemsen R, Kros JM, Bonifati V. FBXO7 immunoreactivity in alpha-synuclein-containing inclusions in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2013;72:482-488.

 

Zoetmulder M, Biernat HB, Nikolic M, Korbo L, Jennum PJ. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy: comparison with Parkinson's disease and idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20:297-302.